8.陸軍博物館を見学

(ハワイ)


平成22年(2010年)6月5日

今日は自由行動日。
殆どの方々はS氏の引率(笑)で、ミズーリー号などの見学に行ったらしい。
アメリカ側が「オプショナルツアー」として企画したらしい。
が・・・私はこれには不参加。

私は一人で「U.Sアーミーミュージアム」に行くことにした。
昨年の12月に来た時に、たまたま休館日で見学できなかったのである。
今度こそは是非見に行きたいと思っていたので、この機会を逃すわけにはいかない。

朝食はいつもと同じマーケットの片隅にあるカフェテラスでサンドイッチとコーヒーの朝食。
このツアー・・・・朝食は付いていない。
各自で自由に・・・とのことなので、いつも同じカフェテラスで一人で食事をする。
折角の機会だから、いろんな店で食事をするのもいいが・・・
毎日同じ店で食事をすると、店のスタッフと顔なじみになるので、会話がしやすくなるというメリットもある。(笑)

食事を済ませて、地図を片手に博物館へ向かう。
かなりの距離だが・・・・
やっぱり、徒歩で町の中を歩かねば面白くない。(笑)
時間はたっぷりあるのだ。

U.S.ARMY MUSEUM

前回来た時にも撮影したが、今回も、もう一度、博物館前に展示されている日本軍の九五式軽戦車や一式機動47ミリ砲を撮影する。

博物館の屋外展示場
九五式軽戦車
一式機動47ミリ砲

博物館は見学無料とのこと。
こりゃありがたい!(笑)
一見、大したことのない博物館だろうと思っていたのだが・・・
完璧に予想を裏切ってくれた。(大喜)
いやぁ〜見ごたえがある!!
もう、ワクワクしながら見学する。
う〜ん、これは一人で来て正解である。
グループなんかで来たのではじっくりと見学できない。

この博物館は昔の要塞を利用して作られているらしい。
要塞当時の模型が展示されていた。

要塞の模型
要塞の中の弾薬庫のジオラマ
私が今いる場所は・・・
昔の要塞の絵の赤く染められている場所・・・
Shell Room
There are two shell rooms in Battery Randolph,one to serve each gun.
A variety of projectiles was kept ready and prepared for firing by a detail from the gun's thirteen-man
ammunition Detachment.
Shells were rolled along the steel rails in the concrete Shell Tables (a),or carried by the overhead
Trolley Rail (b) to the Hoist Room (c)
A false ceiling over the room gave added protection to this sensitive area.
この博物館のある場所・・・
ランドルフ砲台の大砲の模型
米軍・第25歩兵連隊に関する展示
25th Infantry Regiment
Seen here on parade in Honolulu,the 25th Infantry arrived for garrison duty at Schofield Barracks on
January 15,1913 with a strength of 29 officers and 801 enlisted men.
By October 1918,when the regiment left for border duty in Arizona,it had reached a war time strength
of 72 officers and 2,264 enlisted ranks.

The 25th Infantry,one of the ‘old army's’four segregated regiments,was formed in March,1869.
Prior to their service in Hawaii they served on the American frontier against the Indians,in the war
with Spain and in the Philippine Insurrection.

ここには、日本軍に関する展示もあった。
日本が何で太平洋、つまり東南アジアに進出したのかということについて書いてある・・・
それと、“戦略家”山本五十六の戦略について簡単に書かれている。(つまり、真珠湾を攻撃するという戦略)

JAPAN'S GOALS IN THE PACIFIC
By 1940,Japan saw an opportunity to expand further its
empire in East Asia.

British,French,and Duch colonies,rich with oil,rubber,tin,
and other resources,lay virtually unprotected while the European
powers struggled against Germany.
Japan hoped to continue its expansion by establishing the “Greater
East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere,” through which it could gain
access to raw materials and dominate markets for manufactured
goods.

Japan would seize the territories and establish a strong defensive
perimeter,deep in the Pacific and Indian Oceans,then rely on
negotiations to achieve a satisfactory peace settlement with the
Allies.
JAPN'S STRATEGY
The United States Pacific Fleet,based in Pearl Harber,was
the only force in the Pacific-East Asian area that posed a
threat to Japan's success

Neutralizing that fleet at the outset was the key,and surprise was
critical.

Admiral Yamamoto,Japan's master strategist,guided secret
planning,training,and preparations in Kagoshima Bay,similar to
Pearl Harbor in depth and appearance,for a decisive blow launched
from Japan's aircraft carriers.
The Japanese developed special armer-piercing bombs and
shallow-running torpedoes to fit Pearl Harbor's conditions.

ここには、九二式歩兵砲が展示されていた!
ほぼ完璧な形のものである。
こういう程度のいいものは初めて見た・・・
こりゃお宝ではなかろうか?

九二式歩兵砲

日中戦争に関する展示もあった。

左にあるジオラマは、中国戦線で九二式重機関銃を構えている日本兵・・・
バックの写真は、中国のどこかの町の路地を銃を構えて歩く日本兵・・・

Japan's Military Expansion Into
China Began A China Of Events
Leading To War
With The United States

WHY DID JAPAN INVADE CHINA ?

Resource poor Japan desperately needed raw materials for
continued industrial expansion and economic independence.
China was also a natural geographic buffer between Japan
and her arch enemy,the Soviet Union.

1932,Japan seized China's northern province Manchuria
1937,Japan provoked China into open warfare

説明板には「なぜ日本は中国を侵略したのか?」ということが書かれていましたが・・・(汗)

ここは『陸軍博物館』ですが・・・
日本海軍の真珠湾攻撃のコーナーがありました。
TIGER,TIGER,TIGER
The Japanese reached the launch point north of Oahu undefected.
At 6:00 AM,in darkness,the first wave of 183 planes took off and struck
the fleet in Pearl Habor,the garrison at Schofield Barraks,and the airfields
at Hickam,wheeler,Kaneohe,and Bellows.
The second wave of 180 planes was launched at 7:15.
Surprise was complete.
空母『赤城』の模型(1/450スケール)

Japanese Aircraft Carrier AKAGI

Flagship of Admiral Nagumo,Commandant of
the Attack Force.
Deck crews are spotting aircraft for the early
morning launch.
NAVAL AIR POWER
The aircraft carrier strike force was revolutionary in naval warfare.
Japan recognized its potential early,built a powerful fleet of carriers,
and produced the most advanced aircraft desighs by 1941.
The successful attack by British carrier planes against the Italian battle
fleet at Taranto in 1940 convinced Japanese planners that their superior
planes,along with the skill and tactical training of their pilots,could
succeed at Pearl Harbor.

The Nakajima B5N2 Type 97 “Kate”attack plane was both a
torpedo plane and level bomber.It was the most advanced plane of its
type in service anywhere.

The Aichi D3A1 Type 99 “Val”dive bomber was used to attack ships
and ground targets.It was highly maneuverable : in the hands of a
skilled pilot,it was an effective dog-fighter.

The Mitsubishi A6M2 Type 0 “Zero” was the most advanced fighter
of its day.It could out perform any other fighter then in service.It was
used to escort the attack bombers and strafe airfields or ground targets.

驚いたことに、空母『加賀』所属の九七式艦上攻撃機の残骸の一部が展示されていた。
昨年、“ハシモトさん”と二人で撃墜された空母『加賀』の九七式艦上攻撃機の搭乗員・武田友治の慰霊に来たのである。
この機体の一部は、撃墜された空母『加賀』搭載機5機のうちの1機のもの。
もしかしたら・・・武田友治の搭乗機のものかもしれない・・・・
いやぁ〜これは“ハシモトさん”に教えてあげねば!

Horizontal Stabilizer section from one of five “Kate”bombers shot down in the raid.

撃墜された5機の九七式艦上攻撃機のうちの1機の「水平安定板」(水平尾翼)部分である。

撃墜された零戦の航空時計
(8時30分を示して止まっている)

Aircraft Clock from a“Zero”fighter.
Notice what time the clock stopped.
ハワイの防衛に関するコーナー

日本海軍は、1942年3月4日に、再び真珠湾を“攻撃”しているらしい。
二式大型飛行艇による真珠湾の偵察と爆撃をしたようだが、米国側には被害はなかったようである。
飛行艇と、給油を担当した伊号第19潜水艦の模型が展示されていた。

A SECOND BOMBING
Kawanishi H8KI flying boat Y-71,one of two that made a
long-range reconnaissance and night bombing attempt
against Pearl Harbor,March 4,1942.No damage was done,
the bombs fell harmlessly on Tantalus,and the planes
returned to their base in the Marshall Islands.

ワイキキビーチの防衛線・・・
日本軍が上陸してくるかもしれないって思ったのだろうねぇ・・・

WIKIKI BEACH
The Army quickly prepared for possible invasion with machine gun nests at all likely
landing beaches,including Waikiki.
In short order,the lsland of Oahu was surrounded with 4,000,000 feet of barbed wire
and 4,000 pillboxes.

ハワイの市民たちは、日本軍の再度の攻撃という“最悪”に備えたのだそうだ・・・

PREPARE FOR THE WORST
With December 7th fresh in their memory,Hawaii's citizens cooperated willingly to
prepare for further attacks,even practicing for mass evacuation from Honolulu

ドーリットルによる日本本土空襲に関する展示もあった。

Tokyo Raid
A Daring Attack on the Enemy Heartland

After Pearl Harbor the Japanese moved amazingly fast throughout the southern Pacific,
so fast that their original one-year objectives were achieved in only four months.
Allied morale was desperately low.
In an exceedingly daring and dangerous attempt to force the Japanese to curtail their
rapid expansion and lift American morale,Lieutenant Colonel Jimmy Doolittle prepared
a squadron of Volunteers to bomb Japan.
the raid would require American aircraft carriers,Japan's most coveted naval targets,
to venture deep into enemy territory.
The mission was complicated by the fact that none of the pilots had ever launched a
land-based medium bomber from an aircraft carrier.
Fortunately,all sixteen Army B-25 Michell aircraft tookoff successfully,but none
returned to service and several airmen were captured and executed.

A Strategic Shock

The results of the attack surprised the Allies and shocked the Japanese.
Several millitary and industrial targets had been destroyed,but the psychologic effect
made the greatest impact.
The Tokyo Raid has been called the most strategically significant air attack during all of
World War U,not for the damage inflicted but for the events it set in motion.
After the Doolittle Raid Japan accepted Admiral Yamamoto's plan to extend Jpan's air
defense perimeter.
Midway became Japan's next target,and to insure success the imperial Navy amassed
the largest invasion fleet ever seen in the Pacific.
Lt.Col.James H.Doolittle (fourth from
right) and his crew reunited after their plane
crashed.
Photograph shows the Chinese officals who
helped save their lives.
Not all crews were so fortunate.
Lt.Robert Hite,copilot,captured after his
plane went down in Japanese occupied
China.
He returned to the U.S.after surviving 40
monthes of imprisonment.
This photograph first appeared in
a Japanese magazine after the raid.
ミッドウェイ海戦に関する展示

写真は海戦後の日本海軍・重巡洋艦『三隈』
MIRACLE AT MIDWAY
Simultaneous with the Hawaii attack,Japan struck throughout the Pacific
- Wake Island,Guam,the Philippines,Hong Kong,Malaya,and Thailand
-seizing their defensive perimeter.

The psychological impact of Dolittle's Tokyo raid in April 1942,forced
Japan to try to strengthen its perimeter by mounting an offensive to
occupy Midway Island,at the western end of the Hawaiian chain,and
the Aleutians.
Japanese planners hoped to lure American carrier forses into a decisive
battle.
From Midway,Japan could launch air attacks to make Hawaii untenable
as a base.

But using information from intercepted radio messeges,the U.S.was
ready when the Japanese came in June.
Army bombers spotted the fleet,and Navy carrier planes ambushed it.
Four of the Japanese carriers that raided Hawaii were sunk.
The miracle at Midway turned the war around
Hawaii was safe,and the United States switched from defense to offense
日本軍の兵器の展示コーナー

ハワイで編成された部隊に関する展示・・・

写真は、1943年7月22日にニュージョージアに上陸した第25歩兵師団・歩兵第161連隊

この第25歩兵師団は、ガダルカナル島でも日本軍と戦ったが、大戦末期にはフィリピンのルソン島に上陸して日本軍と戦っている。

展示パネルによると、どうも、この部隊に関する博物館があるらしい!
う〜ん・・・・見に行きたいが・・・時間がない!(大涙)

あと、1日、自由時間があればなぁ〜
残念である。

日系人部隊に関する展示・・・・

ハワイの日系アメリカ兵は、ヨーロッパ戦線でドイツ軍と戦ったようである。

HAWAII JAPANESE AMERICANS
The war immediately raised the loyalty question of
Hawaii's 160,000 ethnic Japanese,one third of the
population.
After the attack,1,400 suspects were arrested
and interned in camps,but sheer logistics prevented
the mass relocation that was imposed on mainkand
Japanese.
300 Territorial Guardsmen were dismissed from
service,half joined the Varsity Victory Volunteers;
1,500 National Guardsmen continued to serve under
constant scrutiny,but no more were enlisted.

By May 1942,after demonstrating loyalty and
enthusiasm,many of these Americans of Japanese
ancestry (AJAs) were organized into the Hawaiian
Provisional Battalion and were sent to the mainland
for training.
At Camp McCoy,Wisconsin,on June 12th,the unit
was officially designated the 100th Infantry Battalion
(Separate).
1943年10月22日、イタリアのカッシーノの近くにて・・・・

A Browning Automatic Rifleman gives covering fire during
rehearsals for the costly assault on the fortified abbey.
1944年夏、イタリアにて・・・

攻撃を支援する第100大隊・60mm迫撃砲の兵士たち

第100大隊では情報部の通訳として太平洋戦線で活躍した兵士もいたそうで・・・
写真は、負傷した日本兵捕虜を訊問する日系アメリカ兵。

M.I.S
Hawaii AJAs served also in the Pacific.
In December 1942,67 men from the 100th Infantry Battalion
transferred to Military Intelligence Language School at Camp
Savage,Minnesota,joining mainland AJAs already in training
for the Military Intelligence Service.

Afterward,two remained as instructors,five returned to
Hawaii to recruit more volunteers,and the rest were sent to
various Pacific commands where they,and 6,000 more who
followed,served as interpreters,translators,and analysts.

日系アメリカ人で編成された部隊は、第100歩兵大隊と第442連隊戦闘団・・・

Bought With Blood
The 100th Battalion went into combat near Salemo,Italy,September 1943.
Nine months later,the 442nd Regimental Combat Team joined them and they
fought together as a unit through the rest of the war.
From the begining,the Japanese American fought with distinction,spearheading
offensives,liberating town after town,and continually pushing the Germans
north.
On April 4,1945,using a classic diversion in their first try,they cracked the
Nazis' Gothic Line that had withstood penetration for five months.
The price was high.
Japanese-Americans suffered extremely high casualities throughout the war,
earning the nickname the “Purple Heart” outfit.
What Made Them Tick ?
Because of Pearl Habor,the Japanese American soldier faced great prejudice
and distrust.
They felt compelled to fight all the harder to prove their loyalty.
Combat skills,honed through prolonged intensive training,combined with their
sense of community and aloha spirit,built tremendous teamwork.
The result was unbreakable cohesion in battle and unshakable espirit de corps.
“Go for broke” says it all !
ベトナム戦争に関する展示

屋上にはヘリコプターが展示されていたが、ちょうど改装中らしく立ち入り禁止。
しかし・・・作業者は何故か迷彩服を着ている。
なんでだろう?もしかしたら・・・・工兵隊?
ちょうど階段の踊り場ですれ違った作業員に尋ねたら「工兵隊です」とのこと。
それにしても彼の言葉は丁寧である。
私との会話の返事には必ず最後に「サー」を付けるのである。
別に私は軍人ではないのだが・・・
こういう博物館には元軍人も多く来るだろうから「サー」を付けて会話をした方が間違いがないということなのだろうか?
日本ではこういう敬意の表し方はないだろうなぁ〜
自衛隊ではどうなんだろ?
退役した自衛官への敬意の表し方というのは何かあるのだろうか?
実戦経験がないから、そういうことはないか?

それにしても軍事関係の博物館の修理や維持管理は工兵隊が担当というのは面白い。
人件費はかからないのだろうから・・・(笑)
民間の業者に頼むより安上がりかな?
日本も自衛隊を使って公共施設を修理したりしたら、かなり安く出来るんじゃなかろうか?(笑)

見学後、ミュージアムショップで本を買う。


   


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